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A recent line of work shows that notions of multigroup fairness imply surprisingly strong notions of omniprediction: loss minimization guarantees that apply not just for a specific loss function, but for any loss belonging to a large family of losses. While prior work has derived various notions of omniprediction from multigroup fairness guarantees of varying strength, it was unknown whether the connection goes in both directions. In this work, we answer this question in the affirmative, establishing equivalences between notions of multicalibration and omniprediction. The new definitions that hold the key to this equivalence are new notions of swap omniprediction, which are inspired by swap regret in online learning. We show that these can be characterized exactly by a strengthening of multicalibration that we refer to as swap multicalibration. One can go from standard to swap multicalibration by a simple discretization; moreover all known algorithms for standard multicalibration, in fact, give swap multicalibration. In the context of omniprediction though, introducing the notion of swapping results in provably stronger notions, which require a predictor to minimize expected loss at least as well as an adaptive adversary who can choose both the loss function and hypothesis based on the value predicted by the predictor. Building on these characterizations, we paint a complete picture of the relationship between the various omniprediction notions in the literature by establishing implications and separations between them. Our work deepens our understanding of the connections between multigroup fairness, loss minimization and outcome indistinguishability, and establishes new connections to classic notions in online learning.

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