View publication

To detect bias in face recognition networks, it can be useful to probe a network under test using samples in which only specific attributes vary in some controlled way. However, capturing a sufficiently large dataset with specific control over the attributes of interest is difficult. In this work, we describe a simulator that applies specific head pose and facial expression adjustments to images of previously unseen people. The simulator first fits a 3D morphable model to a provided image, applies the desired head pose and facial expression controls, then renders the model into an image. Next, a conditional Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) conditioned on the original image and the rendered morphable model is used to produce the image of the original person with the new facial expression and head pose. We call this conditional GAN – MorphGAN.

Images generated using MorphGAN conserve the identity of the person in the original image, and the provided control over head pose and facial expression allows test sets to be created to identify robustness issues of a facial recognition deep network with respect to pose and expression. Images generated by MorphGAN can also serve as data augmentation when training data are scarce. We show that by augmenting small datasets of faces with new poses and expressions improves the recognition performance by up to 9% depending on the augmentation and data scarcity.

Related readings and updates.

An On-device Deep Neural Network for Face Detection

Apple started using deep learning for face detection in iOS 10. With the release of the Vision framework, developers can now use this technology and many other computer vision algorithms in their apps. We faced significant challenges in developing the framework so that we could preserve user privacy and run efficiently on-device. This article discusses these challenges and describes the face detection algorithm.

See article details

Improving the Realism of Synthetic Images

Most successful examples of neural nets today are trained with supervision. However, to achieve high accuracy, the training sets need to be large, diverse, and accurately annotated, which is costly. An alternative to labelling huge amounts of data is to use synthetic images from a simulator. This is cheap as there is no labeling cost, but the synthetic images may not be realistic enough, resulting in poor generalization on real test images. To help close this performance gap, we've developed a method for refining synthetic images to make them look more realistic. We show that training models on these refined images leads to significant improvements in accuracy on various machine learning tasks.

See article details