Knowledge-dependent tasks typically use two sources of knowledge: parametric, learned at training time, and contextual, given as a passage at inference time. To understand how models use these sources together, we formalize the problem of knowledge conflicts, where the contextual information contradicts the learned information. Analyzing the behaviour of popular models, we measure their over-reliance on memorized information (the cause of hallucinations), and uncover important factors that exacerbate this behaviour. Lastly, we propose a simple method to mitigate over-reliance on parametric knowledge, which minimizes hallucination, and improves out-of-distribution generalization by 4-7%. Our findings demonstrate the importance for practitioners to evaluate model tendency to hallucinate rather than read, and show that our mitigation strategy encourages generalization to evolving information (i.e., time-dependent queries). To encourage these practices, we have released our framework for generating knowledge conflicts.

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Think While You Write Hypothesis Verification Promotes Faithful Knowledge-to-Text Generation

Neural knowledge-to-text generation models often struggle to faithfully generate descriptions for the input facts: they may produce hallucinations that contradict the given facts, or describe facts not present in the input. To reduce hallucinations, we propose a novel decoding method, TWEAK (Think While Effectively Articulating Knowledge). TWEAK treats the generated sequences at each decoding step and its future sequences as hypotheses, and ranks…
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EMNLP 2021

Apple sponsored the Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP) conference, which was held in a hybrid format from November 7 to 11. EMNLP is a conference focused on natural language processing.

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