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This paper was accepted at the Industry Track at NAACL 2024.

With increasingly more powerful compute capabilities and resources in today’s devices, traditionally compute-intensive automatic speech recognition (ASR) has been moving from the cloud to devices to better protect user privacy. However, it is still challenging to implement on-device ASR on resource-constrained devices, such as smartphones, smart wearables, and other small home automation devices. In this paper, we propose a series of model architecture adaptions, neural network graph transformations, and numerical optimizations to fit an advanced Conformer based end-to-end streaming ASR system on resource-constrained devices without accuracy degradation. We achieve over 5.26 times faster than realtime (0.19 RTF) speech recognition on small wearables while minimizing energy consumption and achieving state-of-the-art accuracy. The proposed methods are widely applicable to other transformer-based server-free AI applications. In addition, we provide a complete theory on optimal pre-normalizers that numerically stabilize layer normalization in any Lp-norm using any floating point precision.

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